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Published on January 5, 2015, by in Uncategorized.

Sex itself can be very aggressive. In many different mammalian species sexual encounters look like fights, sometimes accompanied by thrashing about, loud noises, and (in cats) mock biting, scratching, then a final act of pushing away that looks distinctly unfriendly. However, even after such displays, male and female cats such as lions remain in each other’s proximity for multiple matings, so evidently the act of reproduction is not aversive to them.

Perhaps one reason sex and aggression alternate so easily is that they are related by evolution and biology. In Chapter 8 (p.701) we discussed how winning a fight increases levels of the sex hormone, testosterone, in primate species. Therefore the male winner of a fight benefits in reproductive success: he has more access to females, and he has higher levels lil-waynesongs.com of male hormone that fosters greater degrees of sexual activity as well as aggression.

However, not all primates are aggressive. In at least one species, aggression takes second place to sex. The “pygmy chimpanzee” or bonobo (bo-NO-bo) is the human’s closest relative among primates. Among bonobos, sex is frequent, bisexual, and promiscuous. Almost anything exciting (such as anticipated food) causes Bonobos to initiate sexual contacts with one another. This makes bonobos unlike other types of chimpanzees, who fight more and have sex less.

 
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Published on January 5, 2015, by in Uncategorized.

In collecting her interview data on limerence, Tennov encountered people who had limerence feeling only for members of the same sex. Homolimerence, as Tennov called it, is like Tramadol kaufen the heterosexual variety. It may persist in the absence of an actual relationship. Tennov expresses the opinion that such limerence feelings cannot easily be redirected toward the opposite sex; she refers to gender-orientation as the most “immutable” (unchangeable) quality of limerence.

Not everybody is familiar with limerence. Tennov found that some people at her lectures were bewildered. They did not recognize her description of limerence and said they had never experienced any such thing. Tennov called these people nonlimerents. Nonlimerents said they never felt crushes or passionate episodes of falling in love. The very idea sounded alien and a little crazy. However, some told Tennov that her description of limerence helped them understand the attitudes of others. Previously it seemed all the attention paid to romantic love in popular Tramadol kaufen culture was like a conspiracy to make something out of nothing. Tramadol kaufen

 
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Published on January 5, 2015, by in Uncategorized.

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Sex and gender zolpidem kaufen are not the same thing. Sex is a biological activity. As behavior, sex is activity aimed at sexual satisfaction. It may or may not be directed at another person. Gender, as psychologists use the term, is a person’s psychological identification as a male or female.

Gender dysphoria is distinct from homosexuality. Dysphoria is the opposite of euphoria; it means distress and dissatisfaction. Gender dysphoria refers to alienation and dissatisfaction with one’s outward gender. A gender dysphoric person feels like a female in a male body, or a male in a female body.

Such a mismatch may be due to hormone fluctuations during critical periods of development in the womb. As we saw in the first section of this chapter, hormones can alter the development of internal reproductive organs, external reproductive organs, and sex-typical behaviors…all at different times. A person’s inner sexual identity may be formed at a different time than one’s sexual organs. If testosterone zolpidem kaufen is present during one phase but not the other, the result would be a mismatch between inner and outer sexual identity.

 
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Published on December 31, 2014, by in Uncategorized.

The topic of bystander apathy came to public attention after the horrible murder of Catherine Genovese. Thirty-eight people witnessed portions of the attack, yet it was half an hour before anybody called the police. Darley and Latanй did a series of studies on the bystander apathy phenomenon. They found a diffusion of responsibility effect. When larger numbers of people witnessed a crisis, individuals were less likely to volunteer to help. Personal contact greatly increased the likelihood that people would help a person in distress.

Aggression has been studied for many decades. Contrary to old theories, frustration does not seem to be the main cause of aggression. Instead, people are aggressive when they see aggressive behavior modeled or think it is expected of them. People who witness violence in their home while growing up are far more likely to commit acts of violence later in their own relationships. Males are more prone to violent aggression than females, and testosterone (the male hormone) increases aggression. Zimbardo showed, in his famous prison study, that role-playing could elicit aggressive behavior in ordinary male volunteers.

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Published on December 29, 2014, by in Uncategorized.

As a student, Stanley Milgram learned about Asch’s conformity experiments and wondered if there might be a way to use them to study obedience to authority. Milgram later said, in an interview with Carol Tavris (Milgram, 1992):

I was trying to think of a way to make Asch’s conformity experiment more humanly significant. I was dissatisfied that the test of conformity was judgments about lines. I wondered whether groups could pressure a person into performing an act whose human import was more readily apparent, perhaps behaving aggressively toward another person, say by administering increasingly severe shocks to him. (p.xxxi)

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Milgram went on to test this idea, and his experiment became famous. One reason it became famous is that Milgram released an educational film about the experiment called Obedience (1965). It showed scenes from the actual experiment. Decades after the experiment, this video remained one of the most-requested items from university audio/visual centers.

 
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Published on December 22, 2014, by in Uncategorized.

Как выбрать светильник, чтобы решить сразу несколько проблем: осветить комнату и создать пространство и уют? Для этого при выборе светильника стоит ориентироваться не только его дизайном, моделью и красотой, но и обратить внимание, насколько выгодно он будет смотреться в комнате.

Типы интернет-магазин светильников

Светильники бывают двух типов: промышленные и бытовые. Промышленные светильники используются на производстве, на заводах и в офисах. Бытовые светильники, соответственно, используются в дамах и квартирах.

Также по своей принадлежности светильники делятся на функциональные и декоративные. Функциональные светильники служат основным источником света, а декоративные – приятным дополнением интерьера.

По типу создаваемого освещения светильники бывают двух видов: общего освещения и местного или точечного. К первой группе светильников относятся потолочные светильники, люстры и плафоны. Ко второй группе относятся торшеры, бра и настольные лампы.

 
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Published on December 17, 2014, by in Uncategorized.

In addition to people who come to emergency facilities with non-emergency problems, there are two other common categories of overutilizers: (1) people buy cheap levitra online who request medical care but have no detectable ailment, (2) people with chronic psychiatric problems. Falling into both categories at once are people with factitious disorders (p.556) who are sometimes “addicted to the patient role” and skilled at simulating genuine illnesses.

Overutilizers respond well to brief psychological consultations. They are easily detected in the triage process, used in most Emergency Rooms, whereby incoming patients are screened to determine who really needs emergency care. Research indicates that, for people coming to a clinic with imagined disorders, even a single session with a psychiatrist or a psychotherapist reduces the number of later hospital visits.

An example of successful rehabilitation psychology is group therapy for open-heart surgery patients. Radical changes in diet and exercise programs may help prolong the life of individuals with heart problems. This requires a degree of behavioral change that is unlikely to take place without concentrated support. Sometimes a weekly group meeting is effective for promoting the needed changes.

 
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Published on December 17, 2014, by in Uncategorized.

B stands for “belief system”—the cognitive component in a person’s reaction to events. Ellis found that people often state beliefs that are counterproductive and reduce clear thinking. For example, a man whose wife is leaving him might comment, “This is the end of the world for me; I’ll never find somebody who matters as much to me as Mabel.” Ellis would challenge this belief directly. “Is it really the end of the world? Do you mean you’re going to die tomorrow, if she leaves you? Have you gotten to know all the women in the world, so you know that you can’t love any of them?”

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C stands for consequences of irrational beliefs. Irrational thoughts produce bad consequences. They can be self-fulfilling prophecies. . For example, if you expect to feel nervous and do poorly, you are setting yourself up to feel nervous and do poorly. Some people repeat negative thoughts again and again. This repetitious thinking is called rumination and it is a bit like self-programming. A person who is constantly thinking, “This is horrible!” (or some other irrational idea) may stay in a bad mood because of the constant negative self-coaching. Replacing irrational thoughts and fears with a calmer, more reasonable assessment can improve a person’s mood and lead to more adaptive behavior that addresses a problem rationally.

 
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Published on December 17, 2014, by in Uncategorized.

There are many criticisms of Rogers. He is the father of the language sometimes called psychobabble. DeMott (1979) identifies the following phrases, traceable to Rogers, which have become common: “going with the flow,” “getting in touch with my feelings,” “working at my relationship,” “being open to experience.” Some buy generic levitra people find such language unbearably trite, but it was not trite when Rogers wrote about it. In 1946 nobody but Rogers was saying “go with the flow,” and Rogers was quite radical and different in urging people to relax their facades and find their true selves.

A more serious criticism is that Rogers carried nondirection to an extreme. He wrote once that “nobody can teach anybody anything.” Rogers thought the relationship that worked in therapy was a model for all social relationships between humans. For example, in the college classroom, a Rogerian teacher let students invent the content of the course. Discussions in such a class were punctuated by long, awkward silences. Rogers said that was to be expected. Ultimately students would evolve a valuable course. To others, such a course was a waste of time and a reductio ad absurdum (reduction to absurdity) of Rogerian theory, showing you can push a good thing too far.

 
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Published on December 17, 2014, by in Uncategorized.

Like Freud, Jung tried to uncover unconscious problems or complexes. In Jung’s use of the term, a complex is literally a grouping of parts around some central emotional theme. For example, if you had a leg amputated as a child, you might develop a complex about it. Your complex might involve all the thoughts and emotions built up over a lifetime about the absent leg and the impact it might have had on people’s reactions to you, your opportunities in life, or anything else relating to the amputated leg. Unlike Freud, Jung did not assume most of these complexes were sexual in nature. A complex was due to some twist or turn in life that had a big emotional impact on a person.

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The patient who comes to us has a story that is not told, and which as a rule no one knows of. To my mind, therapy only really begins after the investigation of that wholly personal story. It is the patient’s secret, the rock against which he is shattered. If I know his secret story, I have a key to treatment.